The essential physics of medical imaging 3rd edition pdf

 

    This renowned work is derived from the authors' acclaimed national review course  at the University of California-Davis for radiology residents. The text is . Request PDF on ResearchGate | The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging, Third Edition. | This article reviews The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging, Third. book suggests an all-encompass- ing, overwhelming text, it is actu- ally a brief summary of topics devoted to hip abnormalities and imaging.

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    The Essential Physics Of Medical Imaging 3rd Edition Pdf

    Catalyzed by universal adoption of digital imaging technologies during the past decade, the authors of the third edition of this standard text for. Essential Physics of Medical Imaging - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File The essential physics of medical imaging / Jerrold T. Bushberg. — 3rd ed. This renowned work is derived from the authors' acclaimed national review course (“Physics of Medical Imaging") at the University of California-Davis for.

    Catalyzed by universal adoption of digital imaging technologies during the past decade, the authors of the third edition of this standard text for imaging physics undertook an almost complete rewrite. In addition, while continuing to assert that their primary audience is radiology residents, the authors acknowledge their high readership amongst graduate students in imaging physics. Thus, the aim and scope of this book, compared to previous editions, is both more general and more technical. The authors are medical physicists who stay in close contact with the needs of radiology residents through their annual physics review courses. The organization has not changed radically since the previous edition. There are still four major sections: A change in presentation brings an early, detailed discussion on the theory of imaging science and the characteristics and management of digital images into the Basic Concepts section. The book still contains treatments of all important radiologic imaging modalities that use x-rays, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine. An important stylistic change is the use of colored figures. In addition, the authors expand the appendices to 95 pages, including a new in-depth appendix on the Fourier transform and convolution. Tables covering tissue-weighting factors and effective doses in the population have been updated to reflect the revised standards used currently and the availability of more contemporary data. The authors have eliminated most of the errors found in the previous edition and have recognized the need to discard some outdated paradigms.

    This volume is not only useful as a primary textbook, but will also be taken off the shelf and used as a reference for years to come. Reviewed by Geoffrey D. Clarke, PhD. Downloaded 7, times Altmetric Score.

    Home Radiology Vol. Published Online: Dec 22 https: Radiology Fluoroscopy refers to the continuous acquisition of a sequence of x-ray images over time, essentially a real-time x-ray movie of the patient. Fluoroscopy is a transmission projection imaging modality, and is, in essence, just real-time radiography.

    Fluoroscopic systems use x-ray detector systems capable of producing images in rapid temporal sequence. Fluoroscopy is used for positioning catheters in arteries, for visualizing contrast agents in the gastrointestinal GI tract, and for other medical applications such as invasive therapeutic procedures where real-time image feedback is necessary.

    Fluoroscopy is also used to make x-ray movies of anatomic motion, such as of the heart or the esophagus. Mammography is radiography of the breast, and is thus a transmission projection type of imaging.

    Much lower x-ray energies are used in mammography than any other radiographic applications, and consequently modern mammography uses FIGURE Mammography is a specialized xray projection imaging technique useful for detecting breast anomalies such as masses and calcifications.

    The mammogram in the image above demonstrates a spiculated mass arrow with an appearance that is typical of a cancerous lesion in the breast, in addition to blood vessels and normal anatomy. X-ray mammography is the current procedure of choice for screening and early detection of breast cancer because of high sensitivity, excellent benefit to risk, and low cost. Mammography is used to screen asymptomatic women for breast cancer screening mammography , and is also used to help in the diagnosis of women with breast symptoms such as the presence of a lump diagnostic mammography Fig.

    Computed Tomography Cl CT became clinically available in the early s and is the first medical imaging modality made possible by the computer. CT images are produced by passing xrays through the body, at a large number of angles, by rotating the x-ray tube around the body.

    One or more linear detector arrays, opposite the x-ray source, collect the transmission projection data. The numerous data points collected in this manner are synthesized by a computer into a tomographic image of the patient.

    The term tomography refers to a picture -graph of a slice tomo-. CT is a transmission technique that results in images of individual slabs of tissue in the patient. The advantage of a tomographic image over projection image is its ability to display the anatomy in a slab slice of tissue in the absence of over- or underlying structures. CT changed the practice of medicine by substantially reducing the need for exploratory surgery.

    Modern CT scanners can acquire 5-mm-thick tomographic images along a cm length of the patient i. A computed tomography CT image of the abdomen reveals a ruptured disc arrow manifested as the bright area of the image adjacent to the vertebral column. Anatomic structures such as the kidneys, arteries, and intestines are clearly represented in the image.

    CT provides high-contrast sensitivity for soft tissue, bone, and air interfaces without superimposition of anatomy. With recently implemented multiple array detectors, scan times of 0. Because of fast acquisition speed, high-contrast sensitivity, and ability to image tissue, bone, and air, CT remains the workhorse of tomographic imaging in diagnostic radiology.

    Chapter 13 describes the details of CT. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Nuclear medicine is the branch of radiology in which a chemical or compound containing a radioactive isotope is given to the patient orally, by injection, or by inhalation.

    Essential Physics of Medical Imaging

    Nuclear medicine produces emission images as opposed to transmission images , because the radioisotopes emit their energy from inside the patient. Nuclear medicine imaging is a form of functional imaging.

    Rather than yielding information about just the anatomy of the patient, nuclear medicine images provide information regarding the physiologic conditions in the patient. For example, thallium tends to concentrate in normal heart muscle, but does not concentrate as well in areas that are infarcted or ischemic.

    These areas appear as "cold spots" on a nuclear medicine image, and are indicative of the functional status of the heart. Thyroid tissue has a great affinity for iodine, and by administering radioactive iodine or its analogs , the thyroid can be imaged.

    If thyroid cancer has metastasized in the patient, then "hot spots" indicating their location will be present on the nuclear medicine images. Thus functional imaging is the forte of nuclear medicine.

    The Essential Physics of the Medical Imaging, 3rd ed | Radiology

    Nuclear medicine planar images are projection images, since each point on the image is representative of the radioisotope activity along a line projected through the patient. Planar nuclear images are essentially two-dimensional maps of the radioisotope distribution, and are helpful in the evaluation of a large number of disorders Fig. Anterior and posterior whole-body bone scan of a year-old woman with a history of right breast cancer. This patient was injected with MBq 25 mCi of technetium Tc 99m methylenediphosphonate MDP and was imaged 3 hours later with a dualheaded whole-body scintillation camera.

    The scan demonstrates multiple areas of osteoblastic metastases in the axial and proximal skeleton. Incidental findings include an arthritis pattern in the shoulders and left knee. Computer processed planar imaging is still the standard for many nuclear medicine examinations e.

    Planar nuclear imaging is discussed in detail in Chapter Image courtesy of Dr. A myocardial perfusion stress test utilizing thallium TI and single photon emission computed tomography SPECT imaging was performed on a year-old woman with chest pain. This patient had pharmacologic stress with dipyridamole and was injected with MBq 3 mCi of TI at peak stress. Image data was acquired over degrees at 30 seconds per stop.

    Findings indicated coronary stenosis in the left anterior descending LAD coronary artery distribution. SPECTis now the standard for a number of nuclear medicine examinations including cardiac perfusion and brain and tumor imaging. These projection data are used to reconstruct a series of tomographic emission images.

    SPECT images provide diagnostic functional information similar to nuclear planar examinations; however, their tomographic nature allows physicians to better understand the precise distriburion of the radioactive agent, and to make a better assessment of the function of specific organs or tissues within the body Fig.

    Positron Emission Tomography PET Positrons are positively charged electrons, and are emitted by some radioactive isotopes such as fluorine 18 and oxygen These radioisotopes are incorporated into metabolically relevant compounds [such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose FOG , which localize in the body after administration. The energy that is emitted is called annihilation radiation.

    Annihilation radiation production is similar to gamma-ray emission, except that two photons are emitted, and they are emitted in almost exactly opposite directions, i.

    A PET scanner utilizes a ring of detectors that surround the patient, and has special circuitry that is capable of identifYing the photon pairs produced during annihilation. When a photon pair is detected by two detectors on the scanner, it is known that the decay event took place somewhere along a straight line between those two detectors. This information is used to mathematically compute the three-dimensional distribution of the PET agent, resulting in a series of tomographic emission images.

    Furthermore, many of the elements that emit positrons carbon, oxygen, fluorine are quite physiologically relevant fluorine is a good substitute for a hydroxyl group , and can be incorporated into a large number of biochemicals.

    The most important of these is 18FOG, which is concentrated in tissues of high glucose metabolism such as primary tumors and their metastases Fig. Most MRI utilizes the nuclear magnetic resonance properties of the proton-i.

    The proton has a magnetic moment, and when placed in a 1. In MRI, the patient is placed in the magnetic field, and a pulse of radio waves is generated by antennas "coils" positioned around the patient. The protons in the patient absorb the radio waves, and subsequently reemit this radio wave energy after a period of time that depends on the very localized magnetic properties of the sur- FIGURE Whole-body positron emission tomography PET scan of a year-old man with malignant melanoma.

    Patient was injected intravenously with MBq 16 mCi of 1sF-deoxyglucose. The patient was imaged for 45 minutes, beginning 75 minutes after injection of the radiopharmaceutical. The image demonstrates extensive metastatic disease with abnormalities throughout the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton, right and left lungs, liver, and left inguinal and femoral lymph nodes.

    The unique ability of the PET scan in this case was to correctly assessthe extent of disease, which was underestimated by CT, and to serve as a baseline against which future comparisons could be made to assess the effects of immunochemotherapy. PET has applications in functional brain and cardiac imaging and is rapidly becoming a routine diagnostic tool in the staging of many cancers. PET technology is discussed in detail in Chapter The radio waves emitted by the protons in the patient are detected by the antennas that surround the patient.

    By slightly changing the strength of the magnetic field as a function of position in the patient using magnetic field gradients , the proton resonance frequency will vary as a function of position, since frequency is proportional to magnetic field strength. The MRI system uses the frequency and phase of the returning radio waves to determine the position of each signal from the patient. The mode of operation of MRI systems is often referred to as spin echo imaging.

    MRI produces a set of tomographic slices through the patient, where each point in the image depends on the micro magnetic properties of the corresponding tissue at that point.

    Because different types of tissue such as fat, white, and gray matter in the brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and cancer all have different local magnetic properties, images made using MRI demonstrate high sensitivity to anatomic variations and therefore are high in contrast. MRI has demonstrated exceptional utility in neurologic imaging head and spine , and for musculoskeletal applications such as imaging the knee after athletic injury Fig.

    MRI is a tomographic imaging modality, and competes with x-ray CT in many clinical applications. The acquisition of the highest-quality images using MRI requires tens of minutes, whereas a CT scan of the entire head requires abour 10 seconds.

    Thus, for patients where motion cannot be controlled pediatric patients or in anatomic areas where involuntary patient motion occurs the beating heart FIGURE ' Sagittal upper left , coronal lower left , and axial right normal images of the brain demonstrate the exquisite contrast sensitivity and acquisition capability of magnetic resonance imaging MRI.

    Image contrast is generated by specific MR pulse sequences upper images are T1weighted, lower images are T2 weighted to emphasize the magnetization characteristics of the tissues placed in a strong magnetic field, based on selective excitation and reemission of radiofrequency signals.

    Essential Physics of Medical Imaging, 3E (2012) [PDF] [UnitedVRG]

    Further information regarding MRI can be found in Chapters 14 and Also, because of the large magnetic field used in MRI, electronic monitoring equipment cannot be used while the patient is being scanned.

    APA 6th ed. Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.

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    Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. The essential physics of medical imaging Author: The basic science important to nuclear imaging, including the nature and production of radioactivity, internal dosimetry and radiation detection and measurement, are presented clearly and concisely.

    Current concepts in the fields of radiation biology and radiation protection relevant to medical imaging, and a number of helpful appendices complete this comprehensive textbook. The text is enhanced by numerous full color charts, tables, images and superb illustrations that reinforce central concepts. The book is ideal for medical imaging professionals, and teachers and students in medical physics and biomedical engineering.

    Radiology residents will find this text especially useful in bolstering their understanding of imaging physics and related topics prior to board exams. Read more Click here for access ebookcentral. Show all links. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Electronic books Electronic book Additional Physical Format: Print version: Essential physics of medical imaging.

    Document, Internet resource Document Type: A guide to the fundamental principles of medical imaging physics, radiation protection and radiation biology, with complex topics presented in the clear and concise manner and style for which these authors are known. It is suitable for medical imaging professionals, and teachers and students in medical physics and biomedical engineering.

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