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If necessary, the doubtful areas should be recoated and allowed to dry before casting. Reinforcement should be protected from contamination by the bond breaker as it will impair the bond. To permit clean complete separation of the tilt-up panel from the casting surface. To minimise the dynamic loading caused by suction at the time of separation.
Some bond breakers also function as a curing compound for the casting surface. The residue of the compound on the panel or the casting surface should not discolour or interfere with the adhesion or performance of any applied coatings or coverings or cause discolouration of the concrete. It is important to stress that release agents used to facilitate the stripping of formwork in insitu concrete construction are not suitable for use as bond breakers for tilt-up construction.
A number of satisfactory bond breakers are, however, available and it is essential that one of these be used. If the bond breaker is not doubling as a curing compound, then the compatibility of the two must be checked. When applying particular compounds, the manufacturers recommendations should be followed. However, the following points are offered as a general guide: The bond breaker should be applied in two coats each in two applications at right angles to each other.
When the first coat is being used for curing it is usually applied immediately after the concrete surface has received its final trowelling and when the moisture has just disappeared from the surface. The second coat is applied after the formwork is in position.
Prior to spraying the compound, the surface should be clean and free from dirt, debris, sawdust, etc. Otherwise the bouncing which will result when the panel springs free may damage either the crane or the panel or both. If the panel has not released under panel weight, the sides should be vibrated by hammering and steel wedges driven in at the top edge and at the lifting insert positions in an effort to slowly peel TM 34 Tilt-up Technical Manual Construction it off.
This method will probably damage the edges of the panel and the casting surface. Alternatively, a hydraulic jack giving a sideways push between panels can also be effective. Where, however, the problem results from the use of a completely ineffective bond breaker, these methods may not be effective.
It is therefore a golden rule to test the bond breaking compound prior to casting. Secondly, the compatibility of the chosen compound with the bond breaker and its effect on subsequent surface treatments needs to be evaluated, e.
The concrete should be placed, compacted, levelled and screeded as promptly as possible. Use of vibrating screed is good practice. Care should be exercised around fixings, at corners and edges where steel congestion may prevent easy compaction. No final finishing should be attempted until the bleed water has disappeared from the surface.
No driers should be used. In hot, dry conditions the top surface of the concrete should be protected against rapid drying by shielding the surface from winds, shading from the sun and timing the placement to avoid the worst conditions. Spraying aliphatic alcohols onto the surface will also help control evaporation from the surface and the risk of plastic cracking. Plastic cracking could cause a significant reduction in the tensile capacity of a tilt-up panel.
Tilt-up panels should be cured properly to ensure that the full potential concrete strength is developed. Lack of curing may reduce the tensile strength of the concrete by up to one third. As with bond breakers, two further points need to be stressed. Firstly, to be effective the curing compound needs to be properly applied to give uniform and complete coverage to the concrete surface.
This application should take place just when the sheen of surface moisture has disappeared but the concrete is still damp. The concrete strength of vital importance is that achieved at the time of lifting. The 28 day strength must comply with requirements for durability and the designers requirements for the final structure, but it is common for the lifting strength to control what is ordered. In general, lifting strengths, depending on the design, will be in excess of 15 MPa.
To achieve this strength at a few days after casting will usually require a 28 day characteristic strength greater than that required for other reasons.
These requirements should be discussed with the concrete supplier. As accurate prediction of lifting strengths is important, it is appropriate for a set of test cylinders to be cast for site curing.
These could be made on site or by the readymix supplier and delivered to site to be stored in the same curing regime as the panel. At low temperatures, the reduction in strength compared to standard cured cylinders could be considerable.
The tensile splitting test as an alternative to the compression test will generally result in a more accurate prediction of flexural tensile strength.
Concrete mixes using crushed aggregate rather than rounded gravels will have a higher tensile strength for a given compressive strength, which will be reflected in the tensile splitting test.
The radius is measured from the centre of rotation of the crane. The greater the radius, the lesser the load, for example a crane rated at 35 tonnes will carry 35 tonnes at its shortest reach but at 6 metres radius will lift only 20 tonnes. For this size crane, the TM 34 Tilt-up Technical Manual Construction lowest operational radius is in fact around 6 metres but this will increase for larger cranes.
Crawler-mounted cranes impose lower bearing stresses on the ground and can be useful when erection from outside the building is possible. The lifting limitations height, reach and load capacity of the chosen crane should be carefully examined.
As a rough rule of thumb, crane capacity should be two to three times the maximum panel weight. Dismantling, moving and setting up in a fresh location takes considerable time and is completely unproductive. Therefore, the more panels which a crane can erect from a given position the more efficient the operation.
When moving the crane on cast walls still to be lifted, tyre marks will result which are difficult to remove. If this is critical the running surface should be protected with newspaper.
All rigging, lifting beams, shackles, etc. Rate of erection will vary with the size of the panels, layout, complexity of bracing, etc. As a guide, competent contractors aim to erect one panel every half hour and frequently manage a minute cycle.
Many factors come into the selection of crane size and this should have been determined at the planning stage along with panel sizes and casting layout. The crane operator should be involved at this early stage.
When assessing panel working radius, 1. Also the weight of rigging gear and any strongbacks need to be added to the weight of the panel when evaluating crane capacity. The use of a larger crane with fewer number of panels will not always be economical. The additional crane costs need to be balanced against the reduced casting costs. A larger crane will take longer to set up and move between lifts.
A large crane will generally not be able to get as close to a panel and also rigging of large panels will be more complicated. Certainly a larger crane required for only a few larger panels in a contract is an uneconomical solution. High point loads will be imposed on a slab from the outriggers or a mobile crane.
This load should be spread into the slab by using timber bearers to keep bearing stresses to a TM 34 30 Construction 5. Face lifted panels will always hang slightly off vertical 3o to 5o. Edge lifted panels will hang vertical. However this lifting configuration is not economical for panels over metres high. One solution is to use an extra set of inserts in the top edge for face lifted panels.
The load can be transferred to these using a second crane or alternatively the panel could be temporarily propped off vertical and relifted off the top edge. Alternatively offset lifting brackets can be used or trigger mechanisms which lock the lifting ropes against the top of the panel when the panel is near vertical. These operations need to be planned beforehand and should only be carried out by an experienced crane operator. The use of remote release lifting inserts is preferable as this reduces erection time and is safer than climbing up the panel to release the rigging.
Braces should be connected to the panel prior to lifting and these should be positioned clear of lifting inserts and rigging. Purpose-made adjustable braces are available and these speed the erection process as final plumbing of a panel can be carried out using these braces. Braces should have the maximum safe working load displayed at zero, and maximum extension and should have stops to avoid over extension.
The rigging must not be released until the panel is adequately braced. Lateral bracing where required should be fixed immediately so that it is not more than one panel behind the last panel erected. All braces should be checked at regular intervals for tightness and security. Delays during the erection operation can be very costly. Where possible the crane should be on the same side of the panel as the bracing so that the driver can see the erection operation.
The lifting inserts must be placed symmetrically about the centre of gravity in the horizontal direction so that the panel will lift level, and above the centre of gravity in the vertical so that the panel will tilt. Centres of gravity for each panel should be calculated as shown in Figure 31, or by computer, and marked on the drawings.
The layout of the lifting inserts should also be clearly shown. Very tall panels, or those with thin legs of multiple or large openings may need to be strengthened by strongbacks before lifting. Lifting should be carried out so that the panel rotates about the bottom edge. Any damage to this edge can be hidden by appropriate joint detailing. Bottom-edge chamfers are normally used to reduce this risk.